MEASURING WATER CONDUCTIVITY
For pools, ponds, aquariums, we use the Water Test meter to monitor 6 most important water properties in one unit Useful for making colloidal silver and colloidal gold. Use our colloidal silver generator to make your own colloidal silver
Conductivity is a measurement of dissolved charged entities. Conductivity is only a very approximate indication of ppm, because the nanoparticles have a negative charge which opposes the ion charge and confuses the measurement. Usually there is much more ppm present than conductivity would suggest. Conductivity in microsiemens is a good approximate indicator of silver ppm, but not so useful for the other metals
Conductivity indirectly measures ions by measuring the passage of electrons through a sample of water. Solutions which have a lot of dissolved ions will have a high conductivity. Solutions which have a low concentration of dissolved ions will have a
low conductivity. In addition, if you start with Reverse Osmosis water which has a conductivity of about 12 -20, you would have to subtract that value from the final measurement.
UltraMeter® 6P II Waterproof Water Quality Test Meter. Measures Conductivity, TDS, Resistivity, pH, ORP & Temperature.
ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) measures the presence or lack of free electrons and is important in checking for presence of oxidisers such as Chlorine, Bromine, Ozone. An abundance of free electrons indicates an antioxidant benefit such as in Hunza Water.
The design of the Water-Test meter is such that it can be lowered into
the water to be tested in order to fill the Black sample chamber at the
bottom of the unit. It can then be removed from the water and stood in a
position to allow for ease of reading of the various parameters
Ultra Pure Water Test (UPWT) enables you to check the purity of your distilled or demineralized water in laboratory or industrial environments. Ultra Pure Water Tester (UPWT) is an ideal tester for Mega ohm checks. UPWT is ideally suited for fields where distilled, demineralized or pure water is used. UPWT is the first pure water tester to measure in 1/1000ths of micro-Siemens and provides on-the-spot and fast checks for minute traces of contamination in your water, assuring high quality of finished products in processes. These testers are housed in a durable case that provides excellent protection against harsh industrial environments. The casing also features a larger LCD than previous models and with a more ergonomic shape is easier to handle.
This very useful conductivity meter can be ordered from us.
Price of UPWT pocket water tester: $160 US.
We can supply calibration solution of conductivity 84 uS to check any conductivity meter for accuracy.
Some of our samples of 38 microSiemens measured to be 24 ppm of Silver, which is a ratio of 38/24 = 1.58 or 24/38 = 0.63 = approximately 2/3 of the conductivity reading. Other samples of 26.7 uS was equivalent to 14.5 ppm = ratio of 0.54, while other experts have found ratio of 1.2 which may mean that their CS had large uncharged particles of silver contributing to the ppm measurement.
TDS meters are calibrated for Sodium Chloride salt
0.1 microSiemens corresponds to 0.04 ppm (parts per million) of Sodium Chloride salt.
1 microSiemens corresponds to 0.4 ppm of Sodium Chloride salt.
10 microSiemens corresponds to 4.3 ppm of Sodium Chloride salt.
99.9 microSiemens corresponds to 48 ppm of Sodium Chloride salt.
Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistance. 1 microSiemens of conductivity corresponds to an electrical resistance of 1 megohm, 100 microSiemens of conductivity corresponds to an electrical resistance of 10,000 (10K) ohms,
mS, g/l, mg/l, ppm, ppt & converting from one to the other
The unit of measure commonly used in Siemens per centimeter (S/cm). The conductivity of water is usually expressed as microSiemens/cm (µS/cm) which is 10-6 S/CM. The relation between conductivity and dissolved solids is approximately:
Be aware that the above figures are for Sodium Chloride salt and do not correspond accurately to colloidal parts per million. This is because colloidal waters have positive as well as negative nanometre particles and ions, exerting complex double-layer, Zeta potential and quantum effects. The only accurate method to measure colloidal waters is to do what we had to do and send a sample to a laboratory.
Conductance in a solution actually involves the movement of ions. Solutions of dissolved ions (dissolved salts) in water will pass the electric potential of a battery through them and allow the light bulb to light. A solution which will conduct a current is called an “electrolyte.”
Positively-charged ions are called “cations”, negatively-charged ions are called “anions.” Cations are formed when one or more electrons are lost from an atom or group of atoms, anions are formed when one or more electrons are gained by an atom or group of atoms. An electrolyte contains cations and anions. The more cations and anions present, the higher the conductivity.
If the amount of current passing through a solution is measured with a conductivity meter, we can tell relatively how many ions are dissolved in the solution. When more current passes through the solution, we know more ions are present.
Conductivity in a solution decreases as temperature decreases, whereas the conductance of a solid conductor (such as a copper wire) increases with decreasing temperature. Conductance in a solution is different than in a solid. Conductivity in a solution
actually occurs as a result of positive and negative ions moving through the solution. The cations are attracted to the negative electrode and migrate to it. The anions are attracted to the positive electrodeand migrate to it. Once a negative chloride ion reaches the positive pole, it donates an electron, and once a positive sodium ion reaches the negative pole it gains an electron. The transferred electron passes through the ammeter and registers as current (conductivity).
It is important to note that conductivity does not tell us what type of ions are present. Conductivity is only a relative measurement of the total number of ions present. Also, some ions exhibit a higher conductivity than others because they are more mobile. Hydrogen ions are the most conductive ions. Hydroxide ions are the next most conductive. All other ions fall below these two as far as
conductivity is concerned.
Pure water will exhibit some, although very little, conductivity. This is due to the fact that water will ionize each of the hydrogen ion and hydroxide ions very slightly.
Since typical potable water contains hardness, (calcium & magnesium) it is advisable, with very hard water, to soften the water that is being used to make the solution feeding the system. If feed water is not softened, scaling of the electrodes may occur as a result of a change in pH within the electrochemical process. Scaling will coat the electrodes, diminish electrical current flow and negatively impact the efficiency of the system. We sell electronic water softeners and descalers which do not use chemicals.
Contact: Biophysica Inc.,