Biophysica Inc.

Phone our hotline 647-478-6946 10am to 10pm EST (Toronto, NY Time)
7 days a week, or Toll Free 1-800-488-2032 from Canada, US and Territories.

Water Treatment, Public Health and Environmental Engineering Specialists since 1998


Chlorine Fails to Eliminate some viruses and bacteria, use silver instead. Make your own colloidal silver using our domestic colloidal generators and industrial generators.

The disinfection efficiency of chlorine is very much hindered by water contaminants, such that in highly contaminated water even at a concentration of 3.5mg/l of free chlorine, viruses and some bacteria are still active and infective, especially Norwalk virus .

There are several causes for a reduction of Chlorine activity.
● Colloids may envelope bacteria forming a protective coat against chlorine.
● Organic are oxidised by chlorine which reduces the concentration of free chlorine.
● Ammonia and other nitrogenous compounds react with Chlorine forming Chlorine-Nitrogen compounds which have slower in activation for virus and bacteria.

Inactivation of Norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine at  B H Keswick, T K Satterwhite, P C Johnson, H L DuPont, S L Secor, J A Bitsura, G W Gary, and J C Hoff
Norwalk virus in water was found to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than poliovirus type 1 (LSc2Ab), human rotavirus (Wa), simian rotavirus (SA11), or f2 bacteriophage. A 3.75 mg/liter dose of chlorine was found to be effective against other viruses but failed to inactivate Norwalk virus. The Norwalk virus inoculum remained infectious for five of eight volunteers, despite the initial presence of free residual chlorine. Infectivity in volunteers was demonstrated by seroconversion to Norwalk virus. Fourteen of 16 subjects receiving untreated inoculum seroconverted to Norwalk virus. Illness was produced in four of the eight volunteers and in 11 of 16 control subjects. A similar Norwalk virus inoculum treated with a 10 mg/liter dose of chlorine produced illness in only one and failed to induce seroconversion in any of eight volunteers. Free chlorine (5 to 6 mg/liter) was measured in the reaction vessel after a 30-minute contact period. Norwalk virus appears to be very resistant to chlorine which may explain its importance in outbreaks of waterborne disease.

Virus Sensitivity to Chlorine Disinfection of Water Supplies,  EPA Number: 600278123

The efficiency of chlorine disinfection of viruses is likely to be affected both by the type of virus and by the nature of the suspending medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of virus type, suspending medium and the interaction of these, on the kinetics of inactivation by chlorine. Six enteric viruses (picornaviruses) as well as SV40 and Kilham rat virus were studied under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that the different virus types showed a wide range of sensitivity to chlorine disinfection. The rate of inactivation was greater at pH 6 than at pH 10; however, the relative sensitivities of the different viruses were affected differently by changes in pH. This indicates an effect of pH both on the species of chlorine and on the sensitivity of the virus. The presence of dissolved ions also had an effect on sensitivity to chlorine. The possible effects of virus aggregation and the appearance of chlorine resistant mutants were investigated as well. The results indicate that it will be difficult to obtain a single virus type which will serve as a suitable indicator of disinfection under all circumstances. at!OpenDocument

Comparative inactivation of viruses by chlorine

R S Engelbrecht, M J Weber, B L Salter, and C A Schmidt, Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980 August; 40(2): 249–256. at
The kinetics of inactivation of six enteric viruses plus simian virus 40 and Kilham rat virus by free available chlorine was studied under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that the different virus types demonstrated a wide range of susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. The rate of inactivation was greater at pH 6 than at pH 10; however, the relative susceptibilities of the different viruses were affected differently by a change in pH, suggesting that the pH influenced both the species of chlorine present and the susceptibility of the different viruses to chlorine. The presence of potassium chloride also affected the susceptibility of viruses to chlorine.

The "Chlorinated" Water Issue versus the Water Ionization Alternative using Colloidal Copper or Colloidal Silver Nanocrystal Ionization

Most surface and well water sources are rich with natural organic matter (NOM). Unfortunately, growing research has demonstrated that NOM in water when combined with chlorine leads to the formation of potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as Trihalomethanes (THMs) which are potential cancer-causing substances.  A alternative totally safe antimicrobial for pure drinking water is Silver Inline Sanitation which uses silver electrodes and a water ionizer control module such as manufactured by Biophysica.
Silver is now recognised as having no toxicity as a disinfectant for drinking water and is approved in countries like Japan and from authorities like WHO who have approved a level of 0.1 ppm of
silver ions.

CHLORINE is a greenish-yellow gas which combines with nearly all elements. It is a respiratory irritant to the mucous membranes and lungs and causes cancer.  Chlorinated liquids burn the skin and many fabrics.  As little as 3.5 ppm can be detected as an odour.  1000 ppm  is likely to be fatal after a few breaths which is why it was used by the Germans as war gas in 1915.

The April 1987 issue of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Magazine contains a 31 page report that is frightening to anyone concerned with health: "We are in the midst of a chemical revolution in which some 65,000 commercial compounds enter our environment each year. Some are proven carcinogens - cancer causing substances - and many more are suspected of being so. Yet, only 8 chemicals are listed as hazardous......and regulated at their source by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)."

Dr. Roy E. Albert, chairman of the EPS Carcinogen Assessment Group quoted: "The record of EPA regulation is abysmal. But, the research is expensive and funding we are now getting is inadequate." The story ends with a sobering viewpoint: "We are our own guinea pigs."

CHLORAMINE adds ammonia to chlorine and is longer-lasting than chlorine.  it can reduce haloacetic acids in drinking water. Haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes, or TTHM are a cancer risk. They are formed by the interaction of  organic substances with chlorine. residual,

The EPA regulation is part of the amended federal Safe Drinking Water Act to limit TTHM to an average of 80 parts per billion throughout a water system.  TTHM can result in damage to the liver, kidney or central nervous system and carries increased risks of cancer, the government says.

the longer chloramine stays in water, the more it releases lead.

 Ref:  Dangers of Chloramine at

Problems with Chlorine in contrast to Silver copper ionization

Irritates eyes and skin, bleaches hair, corrosive and unsafe to handle and store, damages lungs and causes asthma, damages clothing, evaporates rapidly thus losing effectiveness, toxic to soil, environment  and groundwater, unpleasant strong odour, multiple byproducts causes cancer, daily maintenance required, absorbed through skin, expensive to operate, ineffective against viruses.

Government and Medicine Viewpoints Differ About One Chemical--  CHLORINE!

The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division enforces "RULES FOR SAFE DRINKING WATER " under the GEORGIA SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (PL93-523). Section 391-3-5-.14(2) of Georgia State Law reads as follows:
"(2) The supplier of water must continuously chlorinate the water to maintain a residual of free chlorine in all parts of the distribution system in the amount of at least 0.5 parts per million, and such additional amounts as may be determined necessary by the Division, unless other means of disinfection have been approved by the Director."

Doctor Patrick Flanagan, named at age 17 as one of the Top 10 Scientists in America by Life Magazine, recently advised in his book ELIXIR OF THE AGELESS that: "Drinking tap water is a slow form of suicide, today's tap water is yesterday's toilet water, too thin to plow and too thick to drink. Chemicals (chlorine and fluorides) used to treat water are positive charged cationic electrolytes that are potentially destructive to the colloidal balance when ingested into the human system. As one result, people die........inch by inch, not really knowing what is wrong!"

Marshall Mandell, M.D., recently published in his book, 5 DAY ALLERGY RELIEF SYSTEM: "Most cases of so-called psychosomatic illness are allergic and nutritional in origin - attributed to water borne chlorine " and that: "in short......everything man drinks is polluted with chemical agents that are foreign to his chemistry, and he is suffering the consequences of possessing a body that is incapable of handling the by-products..."

Dr. William Campbell Douglass, M.D., head of Georgia's oldest (five generation) practicing medical doctor family, began warning his patients against drinking chlorinated tap water during the early 1970's:
"....Chlorine is a very strong oxidizing agent, like bleach, and its effect of the blood vessels is one of kills our cells..."

Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., advises readers in the HEALTH FREEDOM NEWS, that the long term effects of exposure to "chlorine in the water supply have scarcely been investigated" and that it (the chlorine) "in water combines very easily with various living substances, forming new organic compounds." Doctor Wright advises that while "chlorination is a necessary evil in public water that does not mean it has to be in you. It shouldn't be." And:
"I don't think it's wise to expose yourself to the risk of chlorine, fluoride, and other miscellaneous chemicals in your water supply."

Richard A.Kunin, M.D., in his recent book MEGA NUTRITION (A Program to Prevent Disease) said this about chlorine: "...even in minute quantities sufficient to kill germs, chlorine can undermine the body's defenses against arteriosclerosis. Chlorine in drinking water creates electrically charged molecules called free radicals....that can damage the intima of blood vessels and so create the environment for plaque formation..."

H. Ray Evers, M.D. was recently quoted: "the chances are that cardiovascular disease will be the cause of death in 3 out of 5 people and that this is contributed to by environmental pollution in water which can add to the harmful toxic build-up in body chemistry." Dr. Evers forewarns:
"The bottom line is clear: of all the ways you could die, there is a 60 percent chance that cardiovascular disease will kill you."

Richard A. Passwater states on page 162 of SUPERNUTRITION that many carcinogenic compounds are washed into our streams which ...
"...were once thought to be harmless but are now known to react with the chlorine used to treat the water we drink to form dangerous carcinogens..."

Dr. Michael Alvania of the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Md. conducted a study of 7 counties in New York and reported:

"...what you could say without any equivocation is that my study demonstrated that people living in areas served by chlorinated water have twice the risk of contracting cancer..."

Researcher Joseph Price, M.D. stated that autopsies performed on U.S. soldiers who were killed in Vietnam showed that many had over 50% arterial blockage, although only in their late teens or the early twenties - caused by chlorine in their drinking water. Doctor Price conducted his own study on the effects of chlorine and he reported that while it is a slow death: "sooner or later chlorine is going to kill you" ... and " sum everything up, I must say that chlorine in your drinking water is the absolute cause of heart attack and strokes..."

Note: Near 3,000 deaths in America occur each day from consequences of these diseases.

"A Drive to ban Chlorine is becoming one of the most significant environmental fights in decades."

USA Today, October 21, 1993

Today, more and more people are becoming aware of the hazards of chlorine. Several countries have already banned chlorine, while many more are in the process of doing so.

In the United States, corporate giants have already jumped on the bandwagon and are using safe, effective alternatives to chlorine.

McDonalds, the hamburger giant, is phasing out their chlorine-bleached french-fry bags because dioxin is leaking into the food. Dioxin is highly toxic, chlorine based carcinogen. Kinko's, the photocopy giant, is meeting customer demand for "chlorine-free" bleached paper. Proctor and Gamble, manufacturers of Tide and other products, now have laundry detergents on store shelves with a "bleach alternative" in it. Bleach is the same as liquid chlorine - only half as strong.

There are over 10 million pool and spa owners in the United States who love to hear about our product. In addition, there are millions of ponds, fountains, industrial cooling towers, water recycling treatment systems and marine saltwater habitat systems that have problems with chlorine but don't know about our product.

Environmental regulations are coming. Biophysica Pool Systems has a product that is a safe, proven and effective alternative to chlorine.

Chlorine and chloramines are commonly used to provide residual disinfection in water. Chorine will damage RO membranes and other process equipment and can otherwise affect a product or process. Chloramination, a more common practice used by municipalities instead of liquid or gaseous chlorine when organic levels in the water source are high, can cause problems with carbon filters. Chloramines will break-through the activated carbon at a much faster rate and must be steamed and replaced more frequently. 

Pool & Spa News (March 9, 1994)
"U.S. Clean Water Plan to Ban Chlorine"
EPA may bar chemical from thousands of applications -- including water treatment
By Eric Herman

In one of the most sweeping attacks ever on chlorine and chlorine-based products, the Clinton Administration announced a Clean Water Plan that could eventually eliminate the chemical's use in thousands of products and applications.

The announcement, made February 1, 1994, by Carol Browner, administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was immediately embraced by environmental groups favoring a broad ban on chlorine -- and just as swiftly assailed by representatives of the chemical manufacturing industry.

As Fred Weber, president of the Chemical Manufacturers Association, told USA Today, "There is only one word to describe our industry's reaction: outrage."

On the other side of the fence, those favoring the ban hailed the announcement as a major, positive step. Activists claim that chlorine destroys the environment and presents a health risk to people eating fish in water contaminated with chlorine-containing compounds.

The plan would call for the elimination of chlorine in the manufacture of textiles, paper, pharmaceuticals and in basic water treatment. The proposal would give industry time to develop alternatives -- a process that could cost tens of billions of dollars.

Reaction from the pool and spa industry was swift as well: "This just doesn't make any sense," said Dave Karmol, director of government regulations with National Spa & Pool Institute. "The Clinton Administration's proposal doesn't take into account the wide range of applications of chlorine or any of its benefits to society."

In response to the proposed ban of the 17th atomic element, NSPI has prepared a fact sheet that lists the benefits of chlorine and points out its widespread use in a variety of industries. According to the sheet, "This proposal is not based on good science and would be detrimental to the health and economic situation of all Americans."

In a related story, also published in USA Today, a joint U.S./Canadian scientific advisory commission has issued a statement blaming chlorine for "startling health problems" and calling for both countries to ban it from the marketplace.

"There's enough evidence to suggest that we need to deal with the problem," said Gordon Durhill, U.S. chairman of the commission. Those problems, said the commission, include increased incidences of breast cancer, learning disabilities and behavioral problems in children and increases in male reproductive disorders.

"It's one of the most important environmental policy statements ever made." noted Bonnie Rice of Green Peace


Pool Chemical Fumes Drive Man from House

GREENE- A North River Road man fled his home after incorrectly mixing swimming pool chemicals in his kitchen, creating toxic fumes early Monday night, a Greene Rescue official said.

John Chouinard called for help after adding water to a chlorine powder, causing a potentially deadly fume, according to Alden Peterson of Greene Rescue.

Chouinard got out of the house without injury. Emergency officials responding to the scene required protective masks to avoid exposure to the lethal fumes.

"That mixture puts out a lot of gas and it's very bad for you," Peterson said. "In fact, it can kill you. You can't send a firefighter into a situation like that without a mask."

Chouinard called for help around 7:38 p.m. after a noxious cloud formed in his kitchen where he was attempting to prepare the solvent for his pool.

Peterson pointed out that mixing chemicals in closed space presents a dangerous situation even if the mixture is correct. The fumes can damage the lungs, he said.

Officials used special fans to ventilate Chouinard's home before he could go back inside. According to Peterson, none of the Greene fire and rescue officials who responded to the home were affected by the fumes.

Sun Journal Sunday - July 1996

Chlorinated tap water linked to upsurge in food allergies worldwide: "Adults with high levels of dichlorophenol, a chemical by-product of chlorine, in their urine were found to be 80 percent more likely to also have a food allergy compared to adults with lower or minimal exposure levels". at Natural News Monday, January 21, 2013

Chlorine leak forces evacuation at Weymouth treatment plant:  October 19, 2010 from

"Even mild asthma can prove deadly for children; 1 in 3 fatal attacks involves kids without severe symptoms, survey finds" at

New study warns chlorine bad for asthma sufferers The World Today - Thursday, 29 May , 2003  12:45:02 at

"Pool Chlorine Linked to Asthma" at

"Chlorine The Paradox: Formerly considered safe, now confirmed deadly". by Barrie Carlsen at Vista health magazine http://

"Asthma linked with indoor swimming pools: Chlorine exposure could be a factor, European scientists say" from Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at

" Two workers hospitalized after chlorine spill: Overwhelmed with fumes from chlorine treated water", Thursday, December 02, 2010 at


Lindstrom, A.B., Pleil, J.D., & Berkoff, D.C. (1997). Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(6), 636-642


Aiking, H., van Acker, M.B., Scholten, R.J., Feenstra, J.F., & Valkenburg, H.A. (1994). Swimming pool chlorination: a health hazard? Toxicology Letters, 72(1-3), 375-380.


Drobnic, F., Freixa, A., Casan, P., Sanchis, J., & Guardino, X. (1996). Assessment of chlorine exposure in swimmers during training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(2), 271-274.


Wood, B.R., Colombo, J.L., Benson, B.E. (1987). Chlorine inhalation toxicity from vapors generated by swimming pool chlorinator tablets. Pediatrics, 79(3), 427-430.

The authors presented two cases of serious respiratory injury after brief exposure to vapors from solid chlorine compounds. No previous reports of such accidents were located and, therefore, this paper related these cases to alert the medical community. It was recommend that physicians caring for children include warnings about these preparations in their routine counseling of parents.

Implication. Chlorinator tablets are of such a concentration that acute exposure to them is hazardous.


Centerwall, B.S., Armstrong, C.W., Funkhouser, L.S., & Elzay, R.P. (1986). Erosion of dental enamel among competitive swimmers at a gas-chlorinated swimming pool. American Journal of Epidemiology, 123(4), 641-647.


Aggazzotti, G., Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., & Predieri, G. (1998). Blood and breath analyses as biological indicators of exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools. Science of the Total Environment, 217, 155-163. In this article, exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in indoor swimming pools as a consequence of water chlorination was reported.

Beech, J.A., Diaz, R., Ordaz, C., & Palomeque, B. (1980). Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water. American Journal of Public Health, 70(1), 79-82.

Water from swimming pools in the Miami area was analyzed for nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes. The average concentrations of nitrate and chlorate found in freshwater pools were 8.6 mg/liter and 16 mg/liter respectively, with the highest concentrations being 54.9 mg/liter and 124 mg/liter, respectively. The average concentration of total trihalomethanes found in freshwater pools was 125 micrograms/liter (mainly chloroform) and in saline pools was 657 micrograms/liter (mainly bromoform); the highest concentration was 430 micrograms/liter (freshwater) and 1287 micrograms/liter (saltwater). The possible public health significance of these results is briefly discussed.

The Most Shocking Fact About Distilled Water
In recent years we've learned a lot about the dangers of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) found in most treated water supplies, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs).

These DBPs form when water treatment disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide react with natural organic matter in the source water.

Researchers have now discovered that DBPs are over 10,000 times more toxic than chlorine, and out of all the other toxins and contaminations present in your water, such as fluoride and miscellaneous pharmaceutical drugs, DBPs may be the absolute worst.

Trihalomethanes (THMs), for example, are Cancer Group B carcinogens, meaning they've been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. They've also been linked to reproductive problems in both animals and humans, and human studies suggest that lifetime consumption of chlorine-treated water can more than double the risk of bladder and rectal cancers in certain individuals.

The process of distilling actually worsens the presence of these extremely toxic contaminants in your water because anything that vaporizes at a lower temperature than water, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC's such as chloroform and trihalomethanes (THM's), will also be boiled and condensed.

Ultra High Sensitivity Free Chlorine (UHFC) Test Strips Features:

The Ultra High II Free Chlorine test strips have a very high range of detection with our patented Free Chlorine indicator. Designed to resist interference from monochloramines, Ultra High Free Chlorine is the ideal product when testing in a food processing environment. Ultra High Free Chlorine is perfect for determining whether or not you have the correct amount of sanitizer present. All of the reagents are impregnated on the test strip pad, and no external chemicals are needed to perform the test.

Price = $30 for bottle


  1. Swichtenberg.Bill , "Chlorination: The Love/Hate Relationship", Water Engineering & Management, Vol. 150 No. 4
  2. Long.J.T. , 2005. "Chloramine Spats White Pipe Backers Against Copper", Water Quality, Vol. 254 No. 10, p. 254.
  3. Rittman Douglas and Tarquin.Anthony , "Impact of Mixing Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide on Total Trihalomethane Formation.", Water Engineering & Management, Vol. 149, No. 8
  4. Lyman.Condie, , "Toxicological Problems associated with Chlorine Dioxide", Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 78, NO. 6, p. 73
  5. Siddiqui, M S., Amy, G.L. $ Rice, Rip G., "Bromate Ion Formation", Journal American Water Works Association (Oct. 1995)
  6. Funyak.Joanne, Disinfection Part 2: Is Chlorine Still the Answer", Water Quality Products, January 2003 Vol. 8 No. 1
  7. Edzwald J.K. and M.B. Kelly, 1998 "Control of Cryptosporidium: From Reservoirs to Clarifiers to Filters", Water Science Technology, Vol. 37, pp. 1-8.
  8. Penkal Anne and Nadia Abboud., March 2002. "Chlorination and Its Alternatives." Water Quality Products, Vol. 7 No. 3
  9. Mustchin, C.P., & Pickering, C.A. (1979). "Coughing water": bronchial hyper-reactivity induced by swimming in a chlorinated pool. Thorax, 34(5), 682-683.
  10. Decker, W.J., & Koch, H.F. (1978). Chlorine poisoning at the swimming pool: an overlooked hazard. Clinical Toxicology, 13(3), 377-381.