- Spas and Hot Tubs
- Water Recycling and Sewage Treatment
- Swimming Pool Purification
- Cooling Towers, boilers, heat exchangers, (ionizing and descaling).
- Evaporative Air Coolers and Humidifiers
- Marine Habitat Systems (for algae and bacteria control)
- Food manufacturing and processing to maintain sterility
- Restaurants, Food Preparation, Processing and Storage
- Coffee Vending Machines
- Poultry Farms, Horses, Veterinary Health
- Fish Farms to boost immunity and prevent infection
- Aquariums, fish tanks
- Decorative Fountains and Ponds (for algae control)
- Hospital Water Systems
Recycling Treatment Systems: Strict EPA guidelines are causing owners of irrigation systems,
municipal garages, boat marines, truck and car wash facilities,
agricultural, construction and trucking industries, equipment rental
firms, utilities and any business with ground water contamination to look
for alternatives. The Biophysica Purifier will work on virtually
any potable water system as long as there is water circulation.
A similar Purifier is being used to clean the Pinellas
County, Florida buses septic systems. This closed loop recycling system
was designed to enable the county to avoid contaminated water discharge
all together by ionizing the contents of the sewage tanks. No discharge means no EPA
permit needed and no need for strict
monitoring. This saves water, stops pollution, eliminates EPA fines, has
low maintenance, has very low operating costs and does not require costly,
complicated chemical additives.
A similar Purifier is being used to clean the Pinellas County, Florida buses septic systems. This closed loop recycling system was designed to enable the county to avoid contaminated water discharge all together by ionizing the contents of the sewage tanks. No discharge means no EPA permit needed and no need for strict monitoring. This saves water, stops pollution, eliminates EPA fines, has low maintenance, has very low operating costs and does not require costly, complicated chemical additives.
Chlorine is a strong bleach and is dangerous. For nearly 100 years, chlorine has been perceived as the only way to disinfect water in swimming pools. Yet, this method commonly yields red, irritated eyes, dry and brittle hair, swimmers ear, dry itchy skin, bleached out swimsuits, and the residual odor of the chlorine itself, not to mention the wear and tear on all pool equipment and the pool's surface. Studies have linked it with cancer, and scientists have reported that chlorine is a leading cause of erosion of the Earth's ozone layer. A drive to ban chlorine has become one of the most significant environmental fights in decades. Not only are these health hazards associated with chlorine, its actual effectiveness has been questioned. Chlorine will not penetrate and kill large groups of bacteria (biofilm), nor will it effectively kill viruses.
Cooling Towers: For cooling towers, the Biophysica Purifier can help clean tanks of bacteria and algae, while a Descaler attacks the "scale" and corrosion that commonly build up in such towers.
Marine Habitat Systems: Biophysica employs ionization to purify water bodies similar to the Marine Science Center dolphin/turtle pools systems for bacteria/algae control. Because high levels of chlorine cause damage to the skins of dolphins and turtles, the Marine Science Center employs a chlorine-free system of water purification. Other applications are in Aquaculture and Pisciculture for culture of food marine animals like shrimp, salmon, prawns.
An Ion is any atom with an electrical charge - positive if it has lost an electron, negative if it has an extra electron. An ion , such as metals, with a positive charge is called a cation, while one with a negative charge is known as an anion. To ionize something means to transform the atom into one of these two ionic forms by moving electrons.
It was NASA that first designed an ionization system for their Apollo flights. The Johnson Space Center developed an electrolytic silver ion generator only slightly larger than a cigarette pack and weighing only 9 ounces. This small ionizer required minimal power and no astronaut monitoring. Mounted at various locations in the potable water supply and wastewater systems, the ionizer would dispense silver ions to eliminate bacteria and viruses. In 1962, silver was approved for use in drinking water by the U.S. Public Health Service.
Today, copper is recognized as one of the best algaecide killers known to man. Oxides and sulfates of copper are used for pesticides, algaecides and fungicides. Pool stores worldwide sell copper based algaecide to kill black algae - the toughest of all to kill.
Silver has been known as an effective bacteria and virus killer for centuries. Silver sulphate is the standard antibacterial treatment for burns and any type or an open wound, and is used to protect the eyes of newborns. Activated carbon filters, for drinking water purification, are impregnated with silver to prevent bacterial build-up. Silver is used as the drinking water purification for half the world's airlines and in over 1,000 passenger ships. Soft drink, beer, liquor, wine and other beverages are rendered safe and more palatable by the addition of silver in over 60 countries.
Several studies by major universities have documented the effectiveness of the copper/silver ionization system.
When copper and silver ions are released into the water, these cationic, surface-active ions are a potent microbicide. The disinfection action takes place when the positively charged copper and silver ions form electrostatic bonds negatively charged areas on the microorganism cell walls. These electrostatic bonds create stresses which damage the microbe cell wall permeability, minimizing the normal intake of life sustaining nutrients and hydrogen. Once inside an algae cell, copper and silver attack sulfur containing amino acid residues in the proteins used for photosynthesis (the process of converting light into usable food and energy). As a result, photosynthesis is blocked and lead to cell lysis and death. If the algae cell manages to live, the reproduction process is hampered by the presence of the copper ions and the spread of algae is held in check. Bacteria is killed, rather that suppressed.
The greatest benefit of copper/silver ionization is that the ions remain in the water providing a long-term residual protection. They provide long-term, nontoxic purification and prevent against recontamination. Unlike most other types of sanitizers, the copper and silver ions remain in the water until they flocculate, or form masses with algae and bacteria and then become large enough to be removed by the filtering equipment. When the "used" copper and silver ions are removed, the microprocessor control box is always producing new copper and silver ions to continuously sanitize the water. Generally the setting of the microprocessor is kept at the same setting, thus a proper amount of copper and silver ions are always in the water. If your test kit shows a copper-ion level too low, simply turn the control knob up a notch. The digital display will show the milliamp charge going to the electrodes. Even if the unit was turned off, the copper and silver ions remain in the water until they flocculate with algae and bacteria, and are removed by the filtering system. Sometimes this can last several months!
The Biophysica purification system consists of a state-of-the-art, microprocessor control box and a scientifically designed set of electrodes composed of copper and silver that are set slightly apart from each other. Water is passed through a specially built flow-cell chamber that houses the electrodes.
The control box works by generating a precise, low-voltage, DC current at milliamp levels to the electrodes. These electrodes consist of a metal-plated cathode and a metal-plated anode. A current is passed between the cathode and the anode, thus producing copper and silver ions by normal plating. Basically, the current causes some of the outermost atoms of the electrodes to lose an electron, thus becoming positive ions. In the specially developed flow cell charging chamber, 100% of the water will pass through the electrodes. While the water is running through the chamber, many of these ions are swept away before they can reach the other side of the electrodes. As a result, copper and silver ions are dispersed into the body of water that is being purified.
The amount of ions introduced is controlled by the microprocessor control box, an adjustable transformer that changes 110 or 220 volt AC current from the power source to a low voltage DC current. The higher the charge, the more ions are released. the amount of ions in the water are determined by a simple copper-ion test kit. The electrodes were designed that when the proper copper-ion level is obtained, the silver level will be correct too. Both the anode and cathode are plated with the same mixture of copper and silver. The polarity is switched back and forth between the electrodes two elements every five (5) minutes to prevent plating of the cathode - a process that reduces the electrode's surface area over time. The polarity change assures equal cleanliness, wear and tear of the two electrodes and prolongs life.
The Biophysica Purification System is easy to operate, requires little maintenance and is backed by a 5 year warranty. The copper and silver ionization has been tested to kill cryptosporidium, E-Coli, V. Cholera, Legionnaires Disease, http://www.biophysica.com/microbiology.html Our system is likely to be at least partially effective against many other types of bacteria and viruses, such as
- avian flu, influenza, polio, sars, ebola, hepatitis, meningitis, norwalk, monkeypox, aids, herpes, west nile, mad cow.
The Biophysica Purification System can be used on virtually any body of water. There are such systems on tens of thousands of swimming pools, spas, cooling towers, hospital water supplies, marine habitat aquariums, fish ponds, cisterns, lakes, quarries, pilas, drinking water systems - under the counter, household, and bottled water systems.
We can include UV light within all of our charging chambers. However UV alone does not provide residual disinfection. Look at our UV page
Case Studies from Waterworld Magazine: Disinfection
"UV treatment keeps bacteria out of wastewater receiving stream"
When selecting equipment for a new wastewater treatment facility, the City of Fairfield, Ohio, wanted a non-chemical solution for the final disinfection of its treated wastewater. The city chose In-Line Ultraviolet (UV) systems from a wastewater and an effluent re-use disinfection specialist. The closed vessel, medium pressure systems destroy fecal coliform bacteria in the plant's effluent stream before it is discharged to the Great Miami River.
"UV disinfection facility treats stormwater runoff"
Moonlight Beach in Encinitas, CA, has had a history of beach contamination warnings due to unsafe bacteria levels in its waters. Like many other California beaches, the beach has fallen victim to pollution from urban runoff. Last year however, the City of Encinitas took decisive steps to halt the pollution with the installation of an urban runoff treatment system which incorporates Ultra Violet (UV) technology.
The water to be purified passes through a special
treatment cell where it is exposed to the electrodes. These are activated
by a low, precisely controlled alternating
self-cleaning direct current. The electrodes release
copper ions (Cu++) and silver ions (Ag+). A large proportion of these ions
accumulate in the quartz sand of the filter, so that this, with its
extremely large surface area, acts as an additional disinfection cell and
no bacterial foci can be formed in the filter. A further portion of these
ions also pass into the pool with the water flow, where they develop their
long-term residual anti-bacterial, antiviral and algaecidal effects.
conducted by major universities have
shown that copper and silver ions are extremely effective purification
agents. When copper and silver ions are released into the water, these
surface-active cations act as potent, long-term, natural disinfectants. In only
a few minutes (8 minutes in
our lab results), the copper and silver ions with their positive
charge form electrostatic bonds with the negatively charged areas of the
cell walls of microorganisms. When these bonds are formed, the
permeability of the microbe cell wall is altered to such an extent that the normal
nutrient uptake of the microorganism is impaired and it becomes disrupted.
copper and silver penetrate an algae or bacterial cell, they attack the
sulphur-based amino acids in the cell proteins, which the cell requires
for photosynthesis. As a result, photosynthesis is prevented and the
microbial cell dies.
For this reason, electrophysical water ionization is one of the most effective alternatives to use of the standard
Other advantages reported by magnetic treatment of
water are that it provides natural,
odourless, soft and skin-friendly water which is ideal for children and in
It has already been known for centuries that silver
and copper destroy bacteria and viruses, even those which are resistant to chlorine.
Silver sulphate and nitrate are frequently used in the
antibacterial treatment of burns and open wounds and are used to
protect the eyes of newborn babies from infection.
As a trace element, copper plays a vital role in
human metabolism. Copper is essential to the activity of many proteins and
enzymes. It promotes the formation of skin pigments and has important
functions in bone metabolism and in the central nervous system. As the
body is not itself capable of producing copper, it must obtain copper from
nutrients (such as vegetables, wholemeal bread, nuts and oats). Only a low
number of copper ions are normally taken up by the body from drinks and
beverages. The level of copper required for swimming pool purification and
to prevent formation of algae is between 0.5 and 0.7mg/l
(parts per million). The specified upper concentration of copper in
the German drinking water regulations is 3 mg/l. Any superfluous copper
ions taken up by adults are not accumulated, but are eliminated from the
However, the most important advantage of copper and
silver ions is that they are retained in the water and continue to provide
protection by purifying the water completely without the use of toxins over the long term. Even after the filter system has been switched off,
this depot effect persists for several months. Thus, frequent adjustments,
monitoring, and supervision, are much less necessary.
The Biophysica water purification system is easy to
operate and requires minimal maintenance. It has been demonstrated that
copper and silver ions eliminate Cryptosporidium, E. coli, the cholera and
legionnaires' disease pathogens and several hundred other species of bacteria and viruses. This water
disinfection technique can be used in practically all situations in which
it is necessary to continually ensure freedom from contamination with
bacteria, viruses and algae. The BIOPHYSICA type of system has already
been installed in thousands of swimming pools and whirlpools.
Frequently Asked Questions on
Industrial Water Disinfection,
Descaling and Ionization
What is an Ion?
What is Ionization?
How does Ionization work?
How does silver / copper ionization purify water?
Is ionization all that you need for your water?
Is ionization safe?
How is ionization safer than chemicals?
How is ionization better than chemicals?
What are the operational costs of ionization?
How often will I have to test the water?
Tell me about water purification?
Do these systems use distilled, Reverse Osmosis water or tap water?
Are all your systems in-line?
Do they use all standard techniques like stirring motor, constant current for making high quality colloidal silver, etc?
Can these systems be used for both water purification and surface disinfectant?
Do these models have easily replaceable electrodes?
Do these models produce high quality colloidal silver tested in labs against bacteria and viruses?
What is the cost of these models ?
Can I buy one model to do everything?
What warranty is available?
Is there a discount on the price?
What options are available?
What quality of water can I expect?
Q. What is an Ion?
A. Ions are positively or negatively charged atoms.
Q. What is Ionization?
A. The electronic release of silver and copper ions and particles of nanometre and mono-atomic size.
Q. How does Ionization work?
A. A safe low voltage DC current of alternating polarity (self-cleaning) is applied to the silver & copper electrodes. As the ions attempt to move from one electrode to the other, many of them become suspended in the water.
Q. How does silver / copper ionization purify water?
A. Copper ions have the ability to pierce the protective outer membrane of a cell and disrupt enzyme balance thereby killing algae. Silver is effective because of its capabilities of interfering with DNA production and accelerating the death phase of bacteria and viruses. Although lethal to bacteria and algae, this process is completely safe for humans. A multitude of scientific tests have been done proving the effectiveness of copper-silver ion systems in and spa applications. Experimentation at the University of Arizona proves that such mineral ions, in conjunction with trace chlorine are 1,000 times more effective against algae than chlorine alone. Today the use of these metals is widespread and highly advanced as is the equipment used to produce them for water treatment.
Q. Is ionization all that you need for your water?
A. Silver & copper ionization completely purifies water leaving long-term residual anti-microbial potency. It is usually necessary to add a small amount of an oxidizing agent (chlorine or non-chlorine shock) periodically to help break down excess organic debris, suntan and body oils etc.
Q. Is ionization safe?
A. Not only is it safe, but the minerals used for water purification are recognized as essential minerals to the body. Normal concentration in spas and hot tubs is about 1/3 the amount allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water.
Q. How is ionization safer than chemicals?
A. Most, if not all of the chemicals currently used to purify water are caustic and or toxic. Many of which are now thought to be Carcinogenic.
Q. How is ionization better than chemicals?
A. The need for high levels of chemicals is eliminated. Also eliminated are the strong chemical odors, damaging effects on hair, skin, fabrics, liners and spa equipment.
Q. What are the operational costs of ionization?
A. In most cases, the electrodes will last three to five years and are relatively inexpensive to replace. The only other cost is the electrical consumption which is only a few dollars a year.
Q. How often will I have to test the water?
A. You will need to test the ion level every few weeks and maintain proper acid-base balance. The ion system is pH neutral so it will not change your water balance like chemicals do.
Q: Tell me about water purification?
The most ideal application is the batch technique where you would have a holding tank or swimming pool which is becoming slowly and carefully more and more charged by recirculating the water using a pump over many hours or days up to a high concentration of ions and high quality for drinking, and where you might want to use distilled water for the highest quality, but not necessarily. All of our systems can charge water recirculated by a pump through a holding tank or can be used in the water line to purify a water supply such as from a ground spring or fountain where there may be septic contamination.
Alternately in an industrial application such as water supply of tap water for a hotel, cruise ship, apartment building, village or town the water may flow only once through the chamber and then on to the user. Here you would not have time to produce the highest quality ionization due to the fraction of a second exposure to the electrodes and where the charging electrical current would have to be much higher in order to release the maximum number of charged atoms in that short time. In other words you would have to sacrifice some quality by having larger clusters of atoms while concentration would not be more than 1 ppm.
Q: Do these systems use distilled water or tap water?
A: They can use either depending on whether the water is for drinking or for disinfection. It would be unnecessary and wasteful to use expensive distilled water for uses other than drinking. In actual fact, even for drinking purposes, distilled water is not absolutely necessary because of our proprietary constant current control which maintains charging at appropriate levels regardless of poor quality or pollution of the tap, well or lake water.
Q: Are all your systems in-line?
A: All of these systems are in-line; meaning that water is continually flowing through the charging chamber. Each inline system can be used 24 hours per day. Recirculating the water for several days through a holding tank or swimming pool allows the charge to be accumulated to a high level after many passes.
Q: Do they use all standard techniques like stirring motor, constant current for making high quality colloidal silver, etc?
A: A pump or stirring motor is always needed to maintain flow unless there is inherent flow from a outside pressurized supply. All of our CS generators use High Frequency Modulated Pulses, Constant Current Control and Alternating Polarity of electrodes to maintain equal wear and to keep the electrodes cleaner and free of oxide deposit which limits Silver, Gold, Copper or Zinc atom release.
Q: Can these systems be used for both water purification and surface disinfectant?
A: All of our systems can be used for both water purification and surface cleansing. In addition we also provide descaling options in situations of excess water hardness causing deposits on the inside of pipes, radiators, coolers, humidifiers. We even have a 12 volt automobile water descaling system to remove scale from car radiators, and a solar cell operated water purification system.
Q: Do these models have easily replaceable electrodes?
A: All models have an easily replaceable cartridge containing new electrodes which can be made of pure Silver or various alloy mixtures of Silver, Gold, Copper and Zinc depending on the application. The old cartridge is unscrewed from the threaded 2" pipe of the charging chamber and the new one screwed in place. Electrodes are easily replaced by screwing in a new cartridge, without any plumbing. No other items need to be replaced and no chemicals are needed.
Q: Do these models produce high quality colloidal silver tested in labs against bacteria and viruses?
A: Lab tests have been done against bacteria and two reports can be seen and printed out at http://www.biophysica.com/microbiology.html and at
It is reasonable to assume that the charged water produced here might have benefits against bird flu, avian flu, infected poultry, Influenza, polio, sars, ebola, hepatitis, meningitis, norwalk, monkeypox, aids, herpes, west nile, mad cow (prion), staphylococci, streptococci, cholera, measles, rabies, staph infection that cannot be cured by the usual penicillin-related antibiotics, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Q: What is the cost of these models ?
With regard to prices, we find that for moderately large volumes over 100,000 gallons, we have to spend considerable professional scientific consultation time and concentration to ensure that our customers have the optimal system matched to their needs. Consequently $5000 to $6000 is often a modest cost for this highly advanced recent technology and back-up support, which has evolved from the marriage of Electronics, Chemistry and Biophysics. Sometimes one customer may need two or more differently tailored systems for different applications. Without some details of your requirements it is difficult to predict more precisely. For economy, we can offer for each model a "Bare-Bones" stripped-down inexpensive completely functional version without UV light, digital display meter, windowed control box or transparent charging chamber (opaque instead).
Q: Can I buy one model to do everything?
A: Each application requires special consideration and there is more literature and private consultation available. An additional factor is that for purification of municipal drinking water and for swimming pools the charging system usually introduces substantial Copper ions in addition to Silver ions and mono-atomic colloidal particles. Concentration is usually 0.3 to 1 ppm and usually Chlorine can be added in one tenth concentration (0.1 ppm) than the usual (1 ppm). A trace amount of Copper is safe in drinking water and has additional benefits especially against Algae and protozoa.
If you would like only one system for everything, then ideally there should be no Copper or Chlorine in the drinking water and the electrodes will be of the highest quality medically pure Silver, which we can provide. However cisterns and holding tanks for drinking water systems in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa and the Caribbean Islands use Silver, Copper and Chlorine combined synergistically because of the extremely heavy pollution there. You should therefore let us know what are your parameters and ask yourself: Is money of greatest concern or is quality your priority?
Q: What warranty is available?
A: All Ionizer products carry a full five (5) year warranty to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use from date of purchase. This warranty does not include replacement electrodes, which are subject to normal wear and must be replaced every one or two years. This warranty does not cover normal wear and tear on cable connections and wiring outside the control box which may be subject to corrosion after several years especially in a humid or salty environment.
Q: Is there a discount on the price?
A: Discount is available for more than one system. Be aware that we may have to charge extra for professional scientific consultation time beyond one free half-hour in order to tailor the system and electrodes to your specific needs in order to ensure the highest quality results.
Q: What options are available?
A extra colloidal drinking water option with these generators includes a motorised stirrer plate which plugs into the Ioniser in addition to and separate from the in-line ioniser chamber. The picture below shows the Stirrer plate option with motorised stirrer and electrode retaining connectors for a wide range of electrode sizes.
Q: What quality of water can I expect?
A: We recently sent samples of our water to an independent laboratory (see results). The results showed that we have achieved the highest quality in the industry, as evidenced by small nanometre-sized spherical charged particles.
At Biophysica, we still consider ourselves world-class experts in the area of highest quality, fine, concentrated (20 -100 ppm) mono-atomic drinking water especially in attempting to combat vicious small viruses and Prions. For this critical consumption application we always use Distilled Water as the basis. For large pools and holding tanks we recommend several ionizers at various points around the pool. Beyond 2.4 million gallons, we can provide a custom high power system.
Comparison of Chlorine Disinfection Systems with Copper/Silver Ionization
1. Permanent pH monitoring required, at least once weekly
1. Monthly pH monitoring advisable.
2. Permanent chlorine monitoring required, at least once weekly
2. Measurement of copper levels every 3 months using inexpensive kit.
3. Causes reddened, irritated eyes
3. No eye irritation.
4. Causes dry, flaking skin.
4. Silky soft skin.
5. Storage of the product and frequent replenishment.
5. Electrodes have a life of 4 - 5 years
6. Marked odour, particularly in public baths
6. Water with neutral odour
7. Corrosive risk to users and to clothing, particularly if fluid
chlorine is used.
7. Fully automatic, risk-free release of biocompatible ions.
8. Use of additional agents required to regulate pH.
8. Occasional agents required for
9. Bath requires supervision over longer periods of absence
9. No supervision necessary during absence of four weeks.
10.Use of additional flocculators necessary.
11.Use of agents necessary during winter breaks.
11.No algae formed during winter periods
12.Use of algaecides necessary.
12.No additional algaecidal agents required.
13.Showering advisable after bathing
13. Bathing in drinking quality water. Cleaner than most tap water.
14.Can cause irritation of respiratory tract and asthma in children.
14. Water contains no irritants.
Can be safely swallowed or inhaled.
15.Risk of corrosive effects on pool elements and environment.
15. No corrosive characteristics.
16. Detectably softer water thanks to electrolysis and mild alkalizing
17.Low buffer capacity.
17.Constant release of ions from electrodes.
18.Chlorine is a potential health risk.
18.Copper is a healthy essential element.
19. Expensive to maintain.
19.Maintenance cost only 50% of chlorine systems.
20. Requires extensive maintenance.
21.Chlorinated water should be changed once annually
21.No water change necessary.
22.Replacement of filter sand every 2 – 3 years
22.Replacement of filter sand every 10 years.
23.Expensive when basalt and hydroanthracite are used.
23.Standard quartz sand can be used for filters.
24.Rapid loss of efficacy if exposed to heating or strong sunlight.
24.Environmental influences have no effect.
25.Backwash water must be discarded.
25. Backwash water can be used to water plants and enhances their
growth. Safe for pets to drink.